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Gharanas of Hindustani Instrumental Music

 

Two main Gharanas of Hindustani music evolved during the reign of Allauddin Khilji:

  1. The Kalawanta Gharana, founded by Baiju Bawra and propagated by Nayak Gopal which included the singers of the Dhrubapada style of music and the instrumentalists who played on Saraswati Veena in accompaniment to the vocal Raga Alap and Dhrubapada songs and
  2. The Kawal Gharana, founded and propagated by Amir Khusro and later on by Sultan Hussain Sarki of Jaunpur. Later on, a third Gharana was formed by the instrumentalists who used to play on Sanhai and Tabla. With the increase of the number of female singers and dancing girls in the court, there arose a fourth Gharana of instrumentalist accompanying them. The Ustads of the third and fourth Gharana were called Mirasis and Dhadis.
Later the following Schools of instruments became renowned: the Carnatic Veena banis, the Gwalior Gharana (instrumental), the Imdadkhani Gharana, the Moradabad Gharana, the Maihar Gharana and the Tabla Gharanas.

The Sarasota Veena banns:

There are four main Sarasota Veena banns: Tanager ban, Karaikudi bani, the Mysore bani and the Andhra bani.

The Instrumental Gwalior Gharana:

The Gwalior school of instrumental khayal is one of the most ancients. Rahimat Khan is credited with the reunification of the instrumental Khayal of the Gwalior played on sitar in the 19th century and the instrumental dhrupad of the Gwalior, a style that has become very rare, played on the Been.

The Imdadkhani Gharana:

The style was created by Imdad Khan from the Gwalior gharana. Ustad Vilayat Khan and Ustad Shujaat Khan are the two important names associated with the Imdadkhani Gharana.

The Moradabad Gharana:

The Moradabad Gharana of instrumental Khayal was born in the middle of the 18th century, as accompanist of the Rampur Gharana from which the actual forms of musical composition originate. Ustad Sabri Khan is considered as the senior-most musician of this gharana.

The Maihar Gharana:

The Maihar Gharana of instrumental Khayal was born in the middle of the 19th century, from within the Rampur Gharana. The credit for developing this style of music goes to Ustad Allauddin Khan, who is the father of Ustad Ali Akbar Khan and father-in-law of Pandit Ravi Shankar.

The Tabla Gharanas:

There are many ways a tabla can be played. Six main styles or bajs have been identified. They are Delhi, Ajrara and Punjab from the Paschim baj and Benaras, Farukabad and Lucknow from the Purab baj. Some of the well-known names of the various Tabla Gharanas and their renowned exponents are as follows: Delhi Gharana: Game Khan, Chhote Kale Khan, Hidayat Khan, Mahadev Indorkar, Illahi Bux Khan, Azim Khan, Ahmedjan Thirakwa, Rafiuddin Sabri, Divyang Vakil, Latif Ahmed Khan, Sudhir Kumar Saxena, Ram Kumar Mishra and Shakeel Ahmad Khan.

Farukhabad Gharana:

Ustad Dayam Ali Qadri, Abhijit Banerjee, Gyan Prakash Ghosh, Munir Khan, Nanne Khan, Aneesh Pradhan, Nikhil Ghosh, Bikram Ghosh, Gyan Prakash Ghosh, Tanmoy Bose, Taranath Rao and Syamal Bose.

Lucknow Gharana:

Pandit Ragunath Nakod, Abhimaan Kaushal, Sheikh Dawood, Abid Hussain Khan, Wajid Hussain Khan, Hirendra Ganguly, Swapan Chaudhuri, Ravi Gutala, Jehangir Khan (Indore), Mohammed Khan and Alladiya Khan (Hyderabad).

Benares Gharana:

Founder: Pandit Ram Sahai, Anand Gopal Bandopadhyay, Anil Palit, Mahadeo Prasad Mishra, Kishan Maharaj/Kanthe Maharaj, Anokhelal Mishra, Baldev Sahai, Badri Maharaj, Beeru Mishra, Birju Maharaj, Wajid Hussain Khan, Kashinath Mishra, Biswanath Bose, Anokhelal Mishra, Samta Prasad Mishra (also known as Gudai Maharaj), Ram Sahai, Kishore Kumar Mishra, Vinod Lele, Maruti Venkatesh Kurdekar and Sandeep Das, etc.

Ajrara Gharana:

Akram Khan, Bandoo Khan, Ghulam Sarwar Sabri, Habibuddin Khan, Raghunath Nakod, Ramzan Khan, Shakeel Ahmed Khan, Natthu Khan and Niazu Khan.

Punjab Gharana:

Ustad Allah Rakha Khan and his son Ustad Zakir Hussain, Abdul Sattar, Tari Khan, Shaukat Hussain, Anuradha Pal, Kader Baksh, Fazal Qureshi and Faqir Baksh.

Unclassified:

Vasant Achrekar, Narayanrao Indorkar, Balakrishna Iyer, Kedar Pandit, Khaprumam Parvatkar, S.K.Hangal, Taranath Rao, Suresh Talwalkar, Pandharinath Nageshkar and Kiran Deshpande.

The Sitar Gharanas:

Two Sitar Gharanas are famous: Seni Gharana of Sitar of Jaipur, founded by the celebrated Amrita Sen and the Sitar Gharana of Lucknow founded by Gulam Mohammad Khan, a disciple of Omrao Khan Seni.

The Sarod Gharanas:

There are two famous Gharanas of Sarod: the Sarod Gharana of Saharanpur which is patronised by the disciples of Omrao Khan and a son of Nirmal Sha Seni and the Sarod Gharana founded by Niamutulla Khan, a disciple of Basat Khan Seni.

 

 


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