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Architecture of India

||Introduction||Temple Architecture|| Cave Architecture||Rajput Architecture|| Jain Architecture ||
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Indo-Islamic Architecture||Colonial Architecture||Modern Architecture||Sculpture in India||
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World Heritage Sites|| ||Famous Architects & Sculptors of India|| 

 

One of the most enduring achievements of Indian civilization is undoubtedly its architecture. The artistic and architectural heritages of India are almost five millennia old.  The Indus Valley sites of Harappa, Mohenjodaro and Lothal provide substantial evidence of extensive town planning.  However, the beginnings of Indian architecture are traced to the reign of Ashoka (c. 270-232) when the construction of Buddhist monasteries and stupas began. The Buddhist architecture remained predominant for several centuries and it left a legacy of stupendous architectural marvels to this date, like the Great Stupa at Sanchi and the rock-cut caves at Ajanta.  The Guptas, Chandellas, Solankis and Gangas were great patrons of art and architecture. The Gupta period can be described as the zenith of Indian architecture.  By the eighth century, the southern Hindu school of architecture began to flourish. The Pallavas, Cholas, Hoysalas and the rulers of the Vijayanagara Empire contributed a great deal to the advancement of architecture in south India.  The rock-cut temples of Mahabalipuram, the temples of Kanchipuram, the Hoysalas temples at Belur and Halebid and the Meenakshi temple in Madurai are some of the excellent examples of south Indian architecture. The advent of Muslim rulers brought in new elements of architectural finesse such as floral motifs, domes and beautiful calligraphy.  The Islamic architecture reached its acme under the Mughals, who constructed many beautiful forts, palaces, mosques and gardens.  The Red Fort and Jama Masjid at Delhi, the Taj Mahal, Agra Fort and Fatehpur Sikhri in Agra, the Badshahi Gardens at Lahore and the Shalimar Gardens at Kashmir are fine specimens of Mughal architecture.

 New elements of Gothic, Imperial, Christian and Victorian architectural styles were introduced into the Indian Architecture during the Colonial Period. The British constructed several important buildings in different parts of the country including St Martin’s Garrison Church, the Presidency College, Madras; the Gateway of India at Bombay and the Rashtrapati Bhawan at New Delhi. The departure of the British following the Indian Independence created a temporary vacuum in the building activities in the country.  Gradually, under the inspiration of leading foreign architects like Le Corbusier, several indigenous architects like Balakrishna Doshi and Charles Correa came on to the scene who provided the much needed dynamics to the dormant architectural scene in India.  

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||Introduction||Temple Architecture|| Cave Architecture||Rajput Architecture|| Jain Architecture ||
 ||
Indo-Islamic Architecture||Colonial Architecture||Modern Architecture||Sculpture in India||
||
World Heritage Sites|| ||Famous Architects & Sculptors of India|| 


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